支持向量机(SVM)初探

算法,机器学习 2016-01-28

wiki百科参考:链接 链接:开源的LIBSVM库

  要想理解SVM,需要掌握一些理论基础才能进行编码,接下来让我们逐步学习。   SVM有许多实现方法,这里介绍的是序列最小优化(SMO)算法(参考链接)   简单来说,SMO是一种解决支持向量机优化问题的迭代算法。由于目标函数为凸函数,一般的优化算法都通过梯度方法一次优化一个变量求解二次规划问题的最大值,但是,对于以上问题,由于限制条件存在,当某个从更新到时,上述限制条件即被打破。为了克服以上的困难,SMO采用一次更新两个变量的方法。

   1.png

  两组可用直线分割的数据称为线性可分的,该直线则称为分隔超平面。上面四幅图都是不可分的。如果数据是超过二维的,直线就发生改变,称之为超平面,也是这个分类的决策边界。我们可以依据此构建分类器,即如果点和平面的距离越大,可信度越大。所谓支持向量,就是距离分隔超平面最近的那些点,要最大化支持向量,就是寻找最优解的过程。

  下面我们来看看SMO的实现:

    #ecoding:utf-8

from numpy import *
from time import sleep

def loadDataSet(fileName):
    dataMat = []; labelMat = []
    fr = open(fileName)
    for line in fr.readlines():
        lineArr = line.strip().split('\t')
        dataMat.append([float(lineArr[0]), float(lineArr[1])])
        labelMat.append(float(lineArr[2]))
    return dataMat,labelMat

def selectJrand(i,m):
    j=i      #选出不等于i的j
    while (j==i):
        j = int(random.uniform(0,m))
    return j

def clipAlpha(aj,H,L):
    if aj > H: 
        aj = H
    if L > aj:
        aj = L
    return aj

#简化版SMO

def smoSimple(dataMatIn, classLabels, C, toler, maxIter):  #数据集,类别标签,常数C,容错率,最大循环次数
    dataMatrix = mat(dataMatIn); labelMat = mat(classLabels).transpose()
    b = 0; m,n = shape(dataMatrix)
    alphas = mat(zeros((m,1)))
    iter = 0
    while (iter < maxIter):    #如果alpha可优化则进入
        alphaPairsChanged = 0
        for i in range(m):
            fXi = float(multiply(alphas,labelMat).T*(dataMatrix*dataMatrix[i,:].T)) + b
            Ei = fXi - float(labelMat[i])#if负责检查是否有例子违背了KKT条件
            if ((labelMat[i]*Ei < -toler) and (alphas[i] < C)) or ((labelMat[i]*Ei > toler) and (alphas[i] > 0)):
                j = selectJrand(i,m)   #随机选择第二个alpha
                fXj = float(multiply(alphas,labelMat).T*(dataMatrix*dataMatrix[j,:].T)) + b
                Ej = fXj - float(labelMat[j])
                alphaIold = alphas[i].copy(); alphaJold = alphas[j].copy();
                if (labelMat[i] != labelMat[j]):
                    L = max(0, alphas[j] - alphas[i])
                    H = min(C, C + alphas[j] - alphas[i])
                else:
                    L = max(0, alphas[j] + alphas[i] - C)
                    H = min(C, alphas[j] + alphas[i])
                if L==H: print "L==H"; continue
                eta = 2.0 * dataMatrix[i,:]*dataMatrix[j,:].T - dataMatrix[i,:]*dataMatrix[i,:].T - dataMatrix[j,:]*dataMatrix[j,:].T
                if eta >= 0: print "eta>=0"; continue
                alphas[j] -= labelMat[j]*(Ei - Ej)/eta
                alphas[j] = clipAlpha(alphas[j],H,L)
                if (abs(alphas[j] - alphaJold) < 0.00001): print "j not moving enough"; continue
                alphas[i] += labelMat[j]*labelMat[i]*(alphaJold - alphas[j])#修改i,修改量与j相同,但方向相同

                b1 = b - Ei- labelMat[i]*(alphas[i]-alphaIold)*dataMatrix[i,:]*dataMatrix[i,:].T - labelMat[j]*(alphas[j]-alphaJold)*dataMatrix[i,:]*dataMatrix[j,:].T
                b2 = b - Ej- labelMat[i]*(alphas[i]-alphaIold)*dataMatrix[i,:]*dataMatrix[j,:].T - labelMat[j]*(alphas[j]-alphaJold)*dataMatrix[j,:]*dataMatrix[j,:].T
                if (0 < alphas[i]) and (C > alphas[i]): b = b1
                elif (0 < alphas[j]) and (C > alphas[j]): b = b2
                else: b = (b1 + b2)/2.0
                alphaPairsChanged += 1
                print "iter: %d i:%d, pairs changed %d" % (iter,i,alphaPairsChanged)
        if (alphaPairsChanged == 0): iter += 1
        else: iter = 0
        print "iteration number: %d" % iter
    return b,alphas

  注:KTT条件

   用图像展示并画出支持向量的点:

    2.png

  可以继续对它进行优化,并使用径向基核函数(链接)优化分类器。它的作用在于将已有的数据从低维向高维进行映射,相当于一个接口。

    优化后的代码为(直接添加):

      def kernelTrans(X, A, kTup): #使用核函数做高维映射变换
    m,n = shape(X)
    K = mat(zeros((m,1)))
    if kTup[0]=='lin': K = X * A.T   #线性核
    elif kTup[0]=='rbf':
        for j in range(m):
            deltaRow = X[j,:] - A
            K[j] = deltaRow*deltaRow.T
        K = exp(K/(-1*kTup[1]**2)) #按NumPy划分而不是按Matlab的矩阵
    else: raise NameError('Houston We Have a Problem -- \
    That Kernel is not recognized')
    return K

class optStruct:
    def __init__(self,dataMatIn, classLabels, C, toler, kTup):  #用参数初始化函数 
        self.X = dataMatIn
        self.labelMat = classLabels
        self.C = C
        self.tol = toler
        self.m = shape(dataMatIn)[0]
        self.alphas = mat(zeros((self.m,1)))
        self.b = 0
        self.eCache = mat(zeros((self.m,2))) #f误差缓存
        self.K = mat(zeros((self.m,self.m)))
        for i in range(self.m):
            self.K[:,i] = kernelTrans(self.X, self.X[i,:], kTup)

def calcEk(oS, k):
    fXk = float(multiply(oS.alphas,oS.labelMat).T*oS.K[:,k] + oS.b)
    Ek = fXk - float(oS.labelMat[k])
    return Ek

def selectJ(i, oS, Ei):         #内循环中的启发方法
    maxK = -1; maxDeltaE = 0; Ej = 0
    oS.eCache[i] = [1,Ei]  #设置标志位 #选择alpha给出最大增量E
    validEcacheList = nonzero(oS.eCache[:,0].A)[0]
    if (len(validEcacheList)) > 1:
        for k in validEcacheList:   #通过校正Ecache值进行循环并且找到最大化的ΔE
            if k == i: continue 
            Ek = calcEk(oS, k)
            deltaE = abs(Ei - Ek)
            if (deltaE > maxDeltaE):
                maxK = k; maxDeltaE = deltaE; Ej = Ek
        return maxK, Ej
    else:   #i在这里没有一个有效的eCache值
        j = selectJrand(i, oS.m)
        Ej = calcEk(oS, j)
    return j, Ej

def updateEk(oS, k): #在alpha改变之后更新值
    Ek = calcEk(oS, k)
    oS.eCache[k] = [1,Ek]

def innerL(i, oS):
    Ei = calcEk(oS, i)
    if ((oS.labelMat[i]*Ei < -oS.tol) and (oS.alphas[i] < oS.C)) or ((oS.labelMat[i]*Ei > oS.tol) and (oS.alphas[i] > 0)):
        j,Ej = selectJ(i, oS, Ei) #第二个alpha选择中的启发式方法
        alphaIold = oS.alphas[i].copy(); alphaJold = oS.alphas[j].copy();
        if (oS.labelMat[i] != oS.labelMat[j]):
            L = max(0, oS.alphas[j] - oS.alphas[i])
            H = min(oS.C, oS.C + oS.alphas[j] - oS.alphas[i])
        else:
            L = max(0, oS.alphas[j] + oS.alphas[i] - oS.C)
            H = min(oS.C, oS.alphas[j] + oS.alphas[i])
        if L==H: print "L==H"; return 0
        eta = 2.0 * oS.K[i,j] - oS.K[i,i] - oS.K[j,j] #用于kernel函数
        if eta >= 0: print "eta>=0"; return 0
        oS.alphas[j] -= oS.labelMat[j]*(Ei - Ej)/eta
        oS.alphas[j] = clipAlpha(oS.alphas[j],H,L)
        updateEk(oS, j) #更新误差缓存  
        if (abs(oS.alphas[j] - alphaJold) < 0.00001): print "j not moving enough"; return 0
        oS.alphas[i] += oS.labelMat[j]*oS.labelMat[i]*(alphaJold - oS.alphas[j])  #i和j改变量相同
        updateEk(oS, i) #更新误差缓存                     #增长方向相同
        b1 = oS.b - Ei- oS.labelMat[i]*(oS.alphas[i]-alphaIold)*oS.K[i,i] - oS.labelMat[j]*(oS.alphas[j]-alphaJold)*oS.K[i,j]
        b2 = oS.b - Ej- oS.labelMat[i]*(oS.alphas[i]-alphaIold)*oS.K[i,j]- oS.labelMat[j]*(oS.alphas[j]-alphaJold)*oS.K[j,j]
        if (0 < oS.alphas[i]) and (oS.C > oS.alphas[i]): oS.b = b1
        elif (0 < oS.alphas[j]) and (oS.C > oS.alphas[j]): oS.b = b2
        else: oS.b = (b1 + b2)/2.0
        return 1
    else: return 0

def smoP(dataMatIn, classLabels, C, toler, maxIter,kTup=('lin', 0)):    #完整版的Platt SMO
    oS = optStruct(mat(dataMatIn),mat(classLabels).transpose(),C,toler, kTup)
    iter = 0
    entireSet = True; alphaPairsChanged = 0
    while (iter < maxIter) and ((alphaPairsChanged > 0) or (entireSet)):
        alphaPairsChanged = 0
        if entireSet:   #遍历所有
            for i in range(oS.m):        
                alphaPairsChanged += innerL(i,oS)
                print "fullSet, iter: %d i:%d, pairs changed %d" % (iter,i,alphaPairsChanged)
            iter += 1
        else:#遍历没有绑定的alphas
            nonBoundIs = nonzero((oS.alphas.A > 0) * (oS.alphas.A < C))[0]
            for i in nonBoundIs:
                alphaPairsChanged += innerL(i,oS)
                print "non-bound, iter: %d i:%d, pairs changed %d" % (iter,i,alphaPairsChanged)
            iter += 1
        if entireSet: entireSet = False #设置循环
        elif (alphaPairsChanged == 0): entireSet = True  
        print "iteration number: %d" % iter
    return oS.b,oS.alphas

def calcWs(alphas,dataArr,classLabels):
    X = mat(dataArr); labelMat = mat(classLabels).transpose()
    m,n = shape(X)
    w = zeros((n,1))
    for i in range(m):
        w += multiply(alphas[i]*labelMat[i],X[i,:].T)
    return w

def testRbf(k1=1.3):
    dataArr,labelArr = loadDataSet('testSetRBF.txt')
    b,alphas = smoP(dataArr, labelArr, 200, 0.0001, 10000, ('rbf', k1)) #C=200
    datMat=mat(dataArr); labelMat = mat(labelArr).transpose()
    svInd=nonzero(alphas.A>0)[0]
    sVs=datMat[svInd] #仅获得支持向量的矩阵
    labelSV = labelMat[svInd];
    print "there are %d Support Vectors" % shape(sVs)[0]
    m,n = shape(datMat)
    errorCount = 0
    for i in range(m):
        kernelEval = kernelTrans(sVs,datMat[i,:],('rbf', k1))
        predict=kernelEval.T * multiply(labelSV,alphas[svInd]) + b
        if sign(predict)!=sign(labelArr[i]): errorCount += 1
    print "the training error rate is: %f" % (float(errorCount)/m)
    dataArr,labelArr = loadDataSet('testSetRBF2.txt')
    errorCount = 0
    datMat=mat(dataArr); labelMat = mat(labelArr).transpose()
    m,n = shape(datMat)
    for i in range(m):
        kernelEval = kernelTrans(sVs,datMat[i,:],('rbf', k1))
        predict=kernelEval.T * multiply(labelSV,alphas[svInd]) + b
        if sign(predict)!=sign(labelArr[i]): errorCount += 1    
    print "the test error rate is: %f" % (float(errorCount)/m)    

  用图形直观展示:

         3.png


本文由 Tony 创作,采用 知识共享署名 3.0,可自由转载、引用,但需署名作者且注明文章出处。

赏个馒头吧